With a size of 8.5 million square kilometers, Brazil is one of the largest countries in the world. It is about twice as big as Europe (European Union) and in order to know all of it, a lifetime might not be enough.
I once met a journalist, who spent 3 years of his life to visit and film all Brazilian national parks, an area which probably represents less than 5% of the countries territory. Since more than ten years, I am personally working intensively on the rainforest trails in South and Southeast Brazil and sometimes wondering how many of them exist and how long it sometimes takes to come back to the same place.
Who already had the opportunity to travel between São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, a section which looks minuscule on every Brazil map, will agree with me that 10 days is not too much, in order to explore at least some of the treasures that lie between these two metropolitan areas.
So, when you pretend to visit Brazil with a limited time, it may be wise to pre-select some destinations, before travelling. To do so, you may divide Brazil in regions, states, municiples and cities but as a traveller or tourist, a better approach might be, to divide and to understand Brazil in form of its six biomes.
You can select between the tropical Caatinga desert in the northeast, the Cerrado savannah and the Pantanal floodlands in the center west, the Pampa grassland in the south and two rainforest biomes; the Amazon and the Atlantic Rainforest (Mata Atlântica). All of these biomes are flat with the exception of the Atlantic Rainforest, where the Mar / Mantiqueira mountain chains expose mountains of up to 3.000 height meters to the tourist.